According to the Constitution, which part of the new government would be elected directly by the people?
Technically, none would be directly elected by the people. Our government is representative, and the people directly elect the electors (who comprise the electoral college), and the electors in turn cast their votes. The people would vote directly for the electors for the office of President, and the House of Representatives. Originally Senators were appointed, not elected by the people — that changed with a Constitutional amendment in the early 1900s thanks to William Jennings Bryan.