Are size illusions in simple line drawings affected by shading?
In a number of simple line drawings, such as the Müller-Lyer or Judd figures, we can experience strong distortions of perceived space-geometric illusions. One way of explaining these effects is based on the perspective information that can be read from the line drawings. For instance, the ‘inappropriate constancy scaling’ theory advocates that the inferred three-dimensional structure of the pictured object is used by the perceptual system to adjust the size of line-drawing components. Such a theory would predict that additional depth cues, for instance shading added to line drawings, should affect these illusions because they influence the three-dimensional appearance. We present here systematic measurements of the magnitude of length misjudgments in horizontal Müller-Lyer and Judd figures for three configurations: (i) pure line drawings, and with shading attached to (ii) the top, and (iii) the bottom of the figures. The latter two configurations are unambiguously interpreted as ‘folde