Can man make rubies synthetically?
Yes, we can. Several methods are currently used to manufacture rubies; each has advantages and limitations. The most popular methods can be categorized into two main types: production from melt, in which powdered material is heated to a molten state and manipulated to solidify in a crystalline form, and production from “solution,” in which the required aluminum oxide and chromium are dissolved in another material and manipulated to precipitate into a crystalline form. Verneuil’s flame fusion and Czochralski’s crystal pulling are the most commonly used melt techniques, while flux growth and hydrothermal growth are the most popular versions of solution processes. Flame fusion rubies, generally the least expensive, are commonly used for bearings and relatively mundane jewelry like class rings. Pulled rubies, selling for upwards of $5 per carat, are preferred for laser use. Flux rubies, costing $50 or more per carat, are used in finer jewelry. The less-common hydrothermal process is used f