Coronary bypass and carotid endarterectomy: does a combined approach increase risk?
Background. Patients with concomitant carotid and coronary artery disease present a surgical dilemma. We compared the stroke and mortality rates for combined coronary artery bypass grafting and carotid endarterectomy in which both procedures were performed under a single anesthetic, versus a staged approach, in which coronary artery bypass grafting and carotid endarterectomy were performed separately. Methods. A computerized MEDLINE search supplemented with a manual bibliographic review was performed for all peer-reviewed English language publications that contained both combined and staged coronary artery bypass grafting/carotid endarterectomy patient cohorts. Outcomes of interest were stroke, death, and stroke or death; aggregation of outcome rates was performed with the Mantel-Haenszel method. Results. Sixteen studies were identified with a total of 844 combined patients and 920 staged patients. None of the studies was completely randomized. The combined surgical group had a higher