How did absolutism arise in France/Russia ?
Absolutism arose in France under Louis XIV, and in Russia under Peter the Great. In the 17th Century, with the exception of Britain, Europe saw an astonishing growth in the power of monarchs over their states. The two centuries leading up to the French Revolution saw the development of absolute monarchies and more tightly-centralized national governments; the growth of the absolute monarchy is regarded by many historians as the origin of the modern state. Europe consequently saw the gradual erosion of local power and autonomy of the Middle Ages, and the rise of national legislation and civil bureaucracies. Because of this growth in absolute and centralized power of the national government and the monarchy, this age in European history is generally called the Age of Absolutism (1660-1789). It begins in the reign of Louis XIV and ends with the French Revolution. Absolutism has its origins in France, and the greatest European monarch of the era, Louis XIV. This monarch who fully embodied