How did wooden castles change to stone castles what changed first?

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The old motte and bailey castles were no good in the long run because they were made out of wood which was not very strong and which rotted. So the Normans replaced them with big square castles made of stone. Stone was much stronger. The castles were also much taller and bigger. The Lord and his family and followers all lived inside it. It was so big that everything they needed was inside.After the Year 1100 another change in the way castles were designed took place. The old square keeps were not so good because it was easy to dig underneath the corners of the keep and make it fall down. Instead they started to build castles with one set of round walls. These were good because the soldiers could see all around and also the castles were harder to knock down. The one weak spot was the gateway so gatehouses were made very strong with towers on each side and a drawbridge. They sometimes had a portcullis which was a massive wooden grating that could be slid up and down. Blah Blah Blah... ... more
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