How do final fields work under the new JMM?
The values for an object’s final fields are set in its constructor. Assuming the object is constructed “correctly”, once an object is constructed, the values assigned to the final fields in the constructor will be visible to all other threads without synchronization. In addition, the visible values for any other object or array referenced by those final fields will be at least as up-to-date as the final fields. What does it mean for an object to be properly constructed? It simply means that no reference to the object being constructed is allowed to “escape” during construction. (See Safe Construction Techniques for examples.) In other words, do not place a reference to the object being constructed anywhere where another thread might be able to see it; do not assign it to a static field, do not register it as a listener with any other object, and so on. These tasks should be done after the constructor completes, not in the constructor.