How do the mountains in the south of Europe affect the climate of Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain?
Answer 1. They – to some extent – protect them from winds from the north, thereby making the climate somewhat warmer there than it otherwise would be! 2. There are more than 4 nations in the European Union (EU). ALL countries in Western Europe are members except Norway, Iceland, Switzerland, Lichtenstein, Monaco, San Marino, The Vatican and Andorra. BUT Norway, Iceland & Lichtenstein are associated with the EU by the so called EES agreement which in fact makes them members except that they have no voting rights. Switzerland has a separate agreement which is practically the same as the EES agreement. Turkey is not (yet) a member but is in a customs & trade union with the EU with completely free trade. Monaco is in such a union with France (also including defence) that for all practical purposes it is part of the EU. It is the same with San Marino & the Vatican with regards to Italy – so they function as if they were parts of EU. It is also the same with regards to Andorra and France & S