Intraoperative hemodynamic monitoring during organ transplantation: what is new?
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To highlight the recent developments in hemodynamic monitoring during liver and lung transplantation. RECENT FINDINGS: Even though a consensus on intraoperative hemodynamic monitoring is still lacking, the most frequently monitoring tool used is the pulmonary artery catheter (PAC). The filling pressures are widely accepted as not being able to accurately define cardiac preload. On the contrary, the use of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), although it is operator dependent and requires a prolonged training, is increasing during the intraoperative period to directly evaluate the cardiovascular function. New frontiers have been opened by the transpulmonary thermodilution: intrathoracic blood volume has been shown to have a better correlation with preload than the filling pressures. The advanced modified PAC permits evaluation of the right heart function and preload. Recently, right ventricular end diastolic volume has been shown to correlate better with preload th