is intussusception biologically plausible?
GROUND: Several studies have shown an association between vaccination with the rotavirus vaccine and the development of intussusception. We evaluated the plausibility of a causal association between natural rotavirus infection and intussusception. METHODS: We performed ultrasound measurements, in infants with confirmed rotavirus infection and in healthy control subjects, of the ileum wall thickness and mesenteric lymph nodes, at enrollment and 1 month later. RESULTS: Thirteen pairs of patients with rotavirus infection and control subjects were enrolled. The mean distal ileum wall thickness at the first examination was 3.0 mm in patients with rotavirus infection and 2.0 mm in control subjects (P = .037). The maximum lymph node size in patients with rotavirus infection was 11.6 mm at the first examination and 7.4 mm at the second examination (P = .017). Nodal aggregates and free fluid were also observed more commonly among patients with rotavirus infection (54% vs. 9%; P = .033 for both)