I would suggest going thru Wikipedia and reading all of the different terms. And an old fashioned book would help. There are quite a few out there that are general guides to the martial arts. We cannot possibly give you all the info you are looking for. But to answer one of your big questions... (and to hopefully clear it uo for a bunch of young people on here...) Karate is one style of martial arts. People who do not know anything confuse karate to mean the martial arts in general. Judo, Aikido, etc are all different types of martial arts. Karate is another, seperate martial art. So, Judo, Aikido etc are NOT karate. Do you want to do a martial art that uses weapons like swords or "nunchuks" or do you want to do more kicking? Or would you rather do throws and "wrestling"? This will be a big guide for which arts you would look into. Good luck!