What are the limits for vertical pushing and pulling?
The values in Table 2 show the upper limits of forces for vertical pushing and pulling. Examples of the use of vertical force are operating controls and hand tools. Such activities tend to be of a repetitive nature and physically more demanding than occasional pushing or pulling. Therefore, these tasks should be designed for considerably lower force requirements than those shown in Table 2. Table 2 Recommended Upper Force Limits for Vertical Pushing and Pulling* Conditions Upper Limit of Force, in newtons (lbf, kgf)** Examples of Activities Pull down Above head height 540 N (120 lbf or 55 kgf) Activating a control, hook grip; such as a safety shower handle or manual control. Pull down Shoulder level 200 N (45 lbf or 20 kgf) Operating a chain hoist, power grips; less than 5 cm (2 in) diameter grip surface. Pull up 25 cm above the floor 315 N (70 lbf or 32 kgf) Stringing cable, threading up a paper machine, activitating a control. Pull up Elbow height 148 N (33 lbf or 15 kgf) Raising a l