All major threats to marine biodiversity are due, directly or indirectly, to human activities. They include, but are not limited to, overfishing, pollution, habitat destruction, coastal development, indiscriminate use of the seashore, introduction of exotic species, overuse of fertilizers in upstream agriculture, and global warming. What is being done to protect marine biodiversity? Different threats are being addressed using a diversity of strategies. For example, the European Union, the USA, and other countries have legislation aimed at preserving species and addressing threats affecting their habitats. Many countries have single or systems of marine protected areas to protect critical marine habitats. In addition, there are programs dedicated to ensure the sustainability of the commercial exploitation of marine resources.