What are the most common concentrate management methods being used by brackish desalination plants in Texas?

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What are the most common concentrate management methods being used by brackish desalination plants in Texas?

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Based on information collected from 38 public drinking water facilities that desalinate brackish groundwater, about 37% of the plants discharge to a surface water body, 24% to a municipal sewer, 21% discharge to an evaporation pond, and about 13% utilize land application. About 5% remain unknown. More information on these disposal methods is available in our report A Desalination Database for Texas (Nicot and others, 2006; 1.29 MB). Additionally, we know of at least one facility (the 27.5 MGD El Paso-Fort Bliss inland desalination facility) that is using deep well injection (USEPA Class V injection well) to dispose off concentrates from desalination. It is the first such plant in Texas to use this disposal option. The plant came online on August 8, 2007.

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