What do fungi, algae, ferns, lichens mushrooms etc. need to live and survive?

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1) There is no general answer to this. Most fungi are obligate aerobes, this means that they require oxygen for aerobic cellular respiration (mushrooms are fungi, lichens are a symbiotic association of a fungus with a photosynthetic partner, usually either a green alga or cyanobacterium). Most of them will need some kind of energy to *grow*. But some are able to survive in extremely aggressive conditions. It has been shown that lichens can survive for some time the aggressive conditions of interplanetary space (high vacuum, exposition to radiation). 2) "An aerobic organism or aerobe is an organism that can survive and grow in an oxygenated environment." "Types: - Obligate aerobes require oxygen for aerobic cellular respiration. In a process known as cellular respiration, these organisms use oxygen to oxidize substrates (for example sugars and fats) in order to obtain energy. - Facultative anaerobes can use oxygen, but also have anaerobic methods of energy production. - ... more
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