What does the „Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV)” and the „Augmentation index (AIx)” mean?

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What does the „Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV)” and the „Augmentation index (AIx)” mean?

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At present, the aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) and the augmentation index (AIx) are used mostly for the non-invasive examination of arterial stiffness. In clinical practice, the PWV is generally understood as the PWV of the aorta, because this is where the decreasing in the flexibility of the vessel wall caused by the atherosclerosis is first present. The aortic PWV can be determined by the time difference in the pulse waves of a. brachialis as well as the velocity measured by the determination in the distance between the aortic route and the bifurcation (v=s/t). It is invasively validated, that this distance is equal to the jugulum-symphisis distance. The AIx is defined as the pressure difference between the first pulse wave (P1), induced by the heart systole and the second pulse wave (P2), appearing from the reflection of P1, divided by the pulse pressure. AIx(%) = (P2-P1)/PPx100.

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At present, the aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) and the augmentation index (AIx) are used mostly for the non-invasive examination of arterial stiffness. In clinical practice, the PWV is generally understood as the PWV of the aorta, because this is where the decreasing in the flexibility of the vessel wall caused by the atherosclerosis is first present. The aortic PWV can be determined by the time difference in the pulse waves of a. brachialis as well as the velocity measured by the determination in the distance between the aortic route and the bifurcation (v=s/t). It is invasively validated, that this distance is equal to the jugulum-symphisis distance. The AIx is defined as the pressure difference between the first pulse wave (P1), induced by the heart systole and the second pulse wave (P2), appearing from the reflection of P1, divided by the pulse pressure.