What does translation and transcription mean when dealing with genetics in biology?
Both processes are related to protein synthesis. Protein synthesis is the process of building proteins. 1. Transcription: The DNA unwinds and “unzips” in the area of the gene. Enzymes match RNA nucleotides to the unzipped nitrogen bases of the gene, forming a single strand of mRNA. 2. The strand of mRNA detaches from the gene and goes out of the nucleus through one of the pores in the nuclear envelope. The DNA zips back together and winds back up. 3. The mRNA finds a ribosome where protein synthesis will happen. Translation: 4. Each set of 3 bases on the mRNA is called a codon. Each codon calls for a specific amino acid to be brought to the building site. The first codon is always AUG, so it is called the start codon. 5. In the cytoplasm are molecules of tRNA. On one end of a tRNA molecule is the anticodon: a set of three bases that will match a certain codon. The other end of the tRNA can pick up and hold a certain amino acid. Each tRNA can only hold one kind of amino acid. 6. A tRNA