What increases outflow resistance in primary open-angle glaucoma?
Intraocular pressure, the most critical risk factor for primary open-angle glaucoma is generated in the trabecular meshwork outflow pathways, which provide resistance to aqueous humor outflow. The resistance is increased in primary open-angle glaucoma, and changes in the quality and amount of the extracellular matrix in the juxtacanalicular region of the trabecular meshwork appear to be causatively involved. The extracellular matrix changes are very likely under control of transforming growth factor-beta2 (TGF-beta2), which is found at high concentrations in the aqueous humor of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma. Additional factors are thrombospondin-1, which activates TGF-beta2 in vivo, and connective tissue growth factor, which is an important downstream mediator of the effects of TGF-beta2 on trabecular meshwork extracellular matrix turnover. In contrast, bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) strongly antagonizes fibrogenic actions of TGF-beta2 on human trabecular meshwork ce