What influence does gender, training status, and age have on the effectiveness of creatine supplementation?
Other variables measured in the meta-analysis included the effect of gender and training status. Creatine appears to be equally effective in males and females, and also equally effective in trained and untrained subjects, although individual studies have had varying results. Some studies have measured the effectiveness of creatine supplementation in older individuals (55 or older) with mixed results. The increase in muscle phosphocreatine after supplementation is not as great in older subjects. While creatine does still improve body composition and exercise performance in this population, the effect is probably smaller.