What is Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)?
CKD refers to the permanent impairment of kidney function. The term CKD replaces older terms CRF (chronic renal failure) and CRI (chronic renal insufficiency), both of which were based on the severity of kidney impairment. When loss of renal function is severe and results in impairment of other organ systems, dialysis or transplantation may be considered and a patient is said to have progressed to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Both CKD and ESRD are uncommon in children: the annual incidence for both is less than 15 per million population in North America. CKD in children typically results from congenital kidney defects, damage caused by kidney infections and other diseases including polycystic kidney disease, Alport syndrome, lupus, nephrotic syndrome and kidney stone formation. CKD, when advanced, allows waste products to accumulate in the body. Symptoms include weight loss or excess weight gain, fatigue, decrease in urine output, loss of appetite, swelling of the body, increased te