What is meant by the term congenital heart disease?
The phrase ‘congenital heart disease’ refers to the various abnormalities of the heart which are present at birth. Other words, such as disorder, defect, condition, or problem, may be used instead of disease. There are three main types of abnormalities: • There may be a narrowing (called ‘stenosis’) in parts of the heart, in its valves, or in the blood vessels outside the heart. This narrowing obstructs the flow of blood and puts strain on the heart muscle. In severe cases, the flow of blood past the obstruction may be reduced. • There may be holes in the partitions (septums) between the chambers of the heart. These allow blood to flow from one side of the heart to the other (called ‘shunting’). As the blood pressure is higher in the left side, blood flows (shunts) from left to right and results in increased flow to the lungs. The normal communications present at birth may persist between the main blood vessels attached to the heart, e.g. Patent Ductus Arteriosus. This also results in