What is the difference between direct and indirect evidence?

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Direct evidence is actual student work showing student knowledge and skills. Examples might include embedded assignments, portfolios, senior thesis projects, or observations of presentations. Indirect evidence is student, faculty or employer perceptions of student performance. Examples might include surveys, exit interviews, focus groups, or student self-assessment. These types of evidence are meant to be combined to more fully understand a learning outcome; for more information, see triangulation of data What is the difference between grading and assessing? Assessment is an evaluative process distinguished from grading. Grades are given by individual faculty to individual students; assessment is concerned with whether a population of students achieves learning outcomes developed by a department for a course or program. While grades may not be used as assessment data, certain projects, exams or assignments that were given a grade may be used as long as evaluated by other faculty with ...
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