What kind of social structure do cows display?
Cows have a herd structure. There will be a dominant cow with other cows subordinate to that animal. A pecking order is established. This order is especially evident at feeding and watering times. How do cattle communicate? Cows communicate just like all other animals do, through the use of body language, vocalization and scent/pheromones. Cattle, like horses, are animals of prey and very herd oriented. Their main form of defense is to run from a threat. They do not defend themselves in the same way as horses or use the same body language. Cattle spend much of their day ruminating, when ruminating they prefer to lie in the sternal position and are focused inward. (You may have had someone ask you what you are ruminating over when you are quite and deep in thought.) Cattle also do a lot of self grooming and groom each other also. Cattle do not have an upper arcade of incisors so aggressive biting is not a problem. They do kick with their hind legs. Cows kick in an arc like motion, not s