What types of traumatic events do civilians experience during war?

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What types of traumatic events do civilians experience during war?

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Typically when we think about being exposed to traumatic events during a war, we think of the experiences of the military, for example, being fired upon, becoming a prisoner of war, sustaining an injury, or witnessing serious injury or death. However, civilians who are not directly involved in the war effort are also frequently confronted with war related stressors. Some typical civilian stressors including life threat; being bombed, shot at, threatened, or displaced; being confined to one’s home; losing a loved one or family member; suffering from financial hardships; and having restricted access to commodities such as food, water, and other supplies as a result of war. Particularly horrific stressors experienced by some civilians during war include: torture, beatings, rape, forced labor, witnessing sexual abuse or violence to a family member, and mock execution. What are the effects of war-zone stressors on civilians? Most of the evidence on the effects of war on civilians has been c

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