What's the difference between optometry and ophthalmology?

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Optometrists (Optometry) are people who are trained to fit you for glasses. they are not doctors. Ophthalmologists (Ophthalmology) are doctors. they can prescribe medicines, do surgeries, and are generally much more educated than Optometrists. more
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An ophthalmologists have the same training as medical doctors or osteopathic doctors, then spends time in specialized training.  Optometrist need only to attend optometrist school for four years after graduating from college. 

Ophthalmologists may perform eye surgery and treat diseases in and around the eye area.  Optometrists may diagnose these conditions, but may not treat them.  Rather, they refer patients having these conditions to appropriate resources for medical care.

Both can determine the correct prescription for glasses or contacts.

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