When should open thoracotomy be considered?
It should be considered if one of the following is present: · A third episode of spontaneous pneumothorax. · Any occurrence of bilateral pneumothorax. · Failure of the lung to expand after tube thoracostomy for the first episode. O.K. Williamson (1866-1941), an English physician, described the Williamson sign, i.e. blood pressure in the leg is lower than that in the upper limb on the affected side in pneumothorax.