Who participated in the international Human Genome Project consortium?
The Human Genome Project could not have been completed as quickly and as effectively without the strong participation of international institutions. In the United States, contributors to the effort include the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which began participation in 1988 when it created the Office for Human Genome Research, later upgraded to the National Center for Human Genome Research in 1990 and then the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) in 1997; and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), where HGP discussions began as early as 1984. However, almost all of the actual sequencing of the genome was conducted at numerous universities and research centers throughout the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Japan and China. The International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium includes: • The Whitehead Institute/MIT Center for Genome Research, Cambridge, Mass., U.S. • The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, The Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambri