Why does hydrogen and chlorine form a single covalent bond?
Neutral Hydrogen has only 1 electron, Chlorine has 17 electron and 7 of which are in the top layer and the rest are in inner layers that can’t be reached, now the top layer can contain only 8 electrons, and 6 of the 7 that the Chlorine has are already bonded with each other in pairs so that only leaves the 7th unpaired electron from the Chlorine to connect to the Hydrogen with, they pair their single electrons and that’s a covalent bond…
Because Hydrogen only has 1 electron in its valence shell that can form a bond. Therefore there can only be 1 bond pair made between the Hydrogen and Chlorine, so one Covalent Bond made Bonded pairs are made of 2 electrons, and 1 pair = 1 covalent bond, as Hydrogen has 1 electron it can only have 1 bonded pair EDIT: It’s a Covalent Bond because the electrons are shared between the two atoms.
First, why is it only a single bond? Simply put, because hydrogen can only form single bonds. It has only one electron. Secondly, why is it a covalent bond? Because ionic bonds form when the difference in electronegativities is > 1.5. The electronegativity of hydrogen is 2.20 and Chlorine is 3.16, so the difference is 0.96.
COVALENT BONDING – SINGLE BONDS This page explains what covalent bonding is. It starts with a simple picture of the single covalent bond, and then modifies it slightly for A’level purposes. It also takes a more sophisticated view (beyond A’level) if you are interested. You will find a link to a page on double covalent bonds at the bottom of the page. A simple view of covalent bonding The importance of noble gas structures At a simple level (like GCSE) a lot of importance is attached to the electronic structures of noble gases like neon or argon which have eight electrons in their outer energy levels (or two in the case of helium). These noble gas structures are thought of as being in some way a “desirable” thing for an atom to have. You may well have been left with the strong impression that when other atoms react, they try to achieve noble gas structures. As well as achieving noble gas structures by transferring electrons from one atom to another as in ionic bonding, it is also possib